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Anatomy Of Corruption

When we talk about Indonesia, we certainly can not be separated from the topic of corruption. Over the last decade, news of corruption almost every day adorn print and electronic media. Political and Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC), an agency based in Hong Kong, revealed survey results that mention Indonesia as the most corrupt country among 16 countries in Asia Pacific. Indonesia scored 9.07 value of the number 10 as the most corrupt countries surveyed in the year 2010. That amount jumped up from the previous year with the number 7.69. Meanwhile, second place is occupied by Cambodia, followed by Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, India, China, Taiwan, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Japan, the United States, Hong Kong, and Australia. They all include most corrupt countries in the survey, apart from Singapore [1].

Doors break Corruption

If we look at corruption as a chronic disease, of course not easy to cure. Like a doctor who would cure the patients with chronic disease, the accuracy in diagnosing and unravel the source of the disease, is the first step that must be done. Furthermore, the doctor, of course, should explore the impact and consequences of the disease, which ultimately required to decide what medicine is right for the patient. Similarly, the eradication of corruption, we must first understand the anatomy of corruption. Starting from the root causes of corruption, how the effects and consequences, up to an effective eradication method. Thus, this chronic disease will be able to resolve in accordance with expectations [2].

The origin of the culture of corruption, is still being debated in various circles. The reasons of morality, or salary (salary) is small, often blamed as a scapegoat. But behind all this, one among many factors that play fosters corruption is "the domination of power." Imagine if the power runs are dominant and not controlled, then how easy this corrupt practice committed in the name of authority and position. Exactly the same exercise of power which is run by the government of the New Order era, Suharto. Where is the government so easily plunder public money, on behalf of the State and development. Who would hinder, branded as anti-government and security stability. Essentially, an unlimited power, will result in the domination and hegemony of the strong against the interests of the majority. This has become an important factor that fosters a culture of corruption [3].

In line with this, Robert Klitgaard (1988) [4] explains that, "illicit behavior flourishes Pls agents have monopoly power over clients, agents have great discretion Pls, and Pls accountability of agents to the principal is weak. A stylizzed equation holds, Corruption = Monopoly + Discretion - Accountability "(illicit behavior to develop when the perpetrator has a monopoly power over clients, when the perpetrator has a discretion is not unlimited, and when akutabilitas principals to the leadership is weak. This is the same: corruption equal to monopoly plus discretion, minus accountability) [5]. From what was expressed by Klitgaard, then there are 3 (three) important aspect to understand the anatomy or the basic framework of why corruption can occur, namely: the existence of monopoly power, the authority or discretion [6] is not unlimited, and the lack of accountability processes clear.

This is the anatomy or the basic framework of corruption, which we need to understand together. Corruption is really a systemic problem, not just a matter of morality such as the assumption most people. It is impossible to gain entrance corruption in the absence of monopolistic practices of power that comes with an unlimited authority. The road is getting a field when the efforts of transparency and accountability are not dindahkah. So that every citizen participation masyarakatpun, becomes not run in an effort to control and supervise the government. Communities in turn are locked in a culture of silence (cuture silent), who can not do anything, even though fraud was widespread.

Fighting Corruption

Because corruption is a common problem, then the fight against corruption should also be done together. We should not be solely put down the resistance effort, to one person or one particular agency. From what was presented previously, it is clear to us that corruption in through the door of an unlimited power. Corruption became fertile due to the dominance of a handful of people against another majority. For that, menghadapinyapun should be done with a strong commitment and courage. Not just stopped and became a byword only. The fight against corruption to be translated in more concrete, with support from various parties. There are some things that need to be emphasized to fight corruption, among others:

First, prevent the practice of domination of power. In general, the dominance of power tends to crony-shaped, or often we term with oligarkhi. Where the composition of power is usually dominated by relatives, family or certain political force based on lineage and friendship. This then causes the imbalance system (balance system) in managing government. To prevent this, it can be done through the practice of a democratic system of government. That is, everyone has the same rights and obligations to sit in the government system. Thus, the dominance of power in the hands of a few, can be limited. This is consistent with basic constitutional mandate of our country. The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945, Article 28D Paragraph (3), which states that "every citizen is entitled to equal opportunities in government."

Second, build a system of supervision and control of power. Without the process of strict control and supervision, then the chances of corruption are wide open. As a result, the law was powerless before a strong, causing insecurity in pennyalahgunaan power (abuse of power). Then who will oversee the running of the government? Is it only the duty of the legislature? Or is it only the responsibility of law enforcement, namely prosecution, police and KPK? Of course not. Participation and active involvement of all components of society, become very important in order to supervise the government. Communities should be given greater freedom in moving to record an indication of irregularities committed by the government. For that, the necessary guarantees to every person to freely obtain and publish data and information openly.No longer haunted with rubber articles, for allegedly leaking state secrets, or defamation.

Third, encourage accountability and transparency. Discourse clean government (clean and good Government), was only figment. Openness and accountability of any use of the budget, still a rare commodity. So many groups and among the difficulties in accessing data from the Government, especially related to budget. Though the process of openness and accountability, an important part in suppressing corruption.The more open the process of accountability, the more thin the odds that corruption can occur. It is true that openness does not necessarily guarantee that corruption will not occur. But those efforts into the initial capital, how to use the budget publicly accountable before the public. The public must be given access to data, considering that government officials had used state money, which incidentally is the money coming from the people themselves.

In the end, we should build a shared commitment, and even obliged to be actively involved in efforts to fight against corruption. KPK and other law enforcement agencies, will never mean anything without strong support from society at large.Starting a fight is not easy, but it would be much more difficult if the resistance was limited to just stop at the mouth.